10 Megabit per second baseband Ethernet specification using two paris of twisted-pair cabling, one pair for transmitting data and the other for receiving data.
100 Mebabit per second baseband Fast Ehternet specification using UTP wiring.
An Active Channel is a frequently updated information residing on a Web server.
Unique identifier of a web page. URL or web address is more
commonly used for this purpose.
Advanced Digital Network is a 56kbps dedicated communication line.
(Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line) -- A method for moving data over regular phone lines. An ADSL circuit is much faster than a regular phone
connection and does not block regular phone line.
Audio Interchange File Format. High quality audio file format introduced by Apple.
Anonymous FTP (or Anon FTP)
Anonymous File Transfer Protocol allows the public to log into an FTP server with a common login (usually "anonymous") and any password. Anonymous FTP is
beneficial for the distribution of large files to the public, avoiding the need to assign large numbers of login and password combinations for FTP access.
A SMTP server that allows sending anonymous email messages.
American National Standards Institute.
Apache is an open-source Linux or FreeBSD based Web server software.
It is currently the most popular web server on the Net.
A small Java program that can be embedded in an HTML page. Applets differ from full-fledged Java applications in that they are not allowed to access certain resources on the local computer, such as files and serial devices (modems, printers, etc.), and are prohibited from communicating with most other computers across a network.
A tool for finding files stored on anonymous FTP sites.
Archives are large files containing valuable data. Archives are often compressed to save space.
ARJ is a compression format.
Advanced Research Projects Agency. This is an
government organization which is responsible for creating the ancestor of
Advanced Research Projects Agency Network. The precursor to the Internet. Landmark packet-switching network established in 1969 by the US Department of Defense as an experiment in wide-area-networking that would survive a nuclear war.
American Standard Code for Information Interchange. A standard for coding text files.
Active Server Pages. This is a server side inclusion technology
which provide Web developers with an easier, faster, and more powerful way to build Web applications, are regular HTML pages with embedded scripts.
Asynchronous Transfer Mode. A set of network protocols designed for multimedia transmission.
This is a standard for cell relay in which multiple service types
such as voice, video, or data are conveyed in fixed-length (53-byte) cells.
A part of an email message which is attached with the
email in form of file.
Audio file format for Unix systems.
A high-speed line or series of connections that forms a major pathway within a network.
Bandwidth is the amount of data that can be transferred over the network in a fixed amount of time.
Bandwidth is normally measured in Kilobits or
Megabits per second.
The rate at which bits are transmitted over a communication link. Baud is the number of transitions (that are used to encode bits) that take place in one second.
Bulletin Board System is a online announcement or
meeting system that allows people to carry on discussions,
ask questions, and make announcements
Data represented in binary format uses only two digits - 0 and 1.
FTP client mode used to transfer binary (non text) files
such as exe or zip files.
A method for converting non-text files into ASCII. This is needed because Internet e-mail can only handle ASCII.
This is the smallest unit of information, comprising of either a 1 or 0.
The speed at which bits are transmitted over a communication link.
measured in bits per second (bps).
The part of an HTML page that contains the actual contents
of the page.
A network device used to connect two LANs using different cabling.
Sending a packet to all machines on the network.
A client software that allows to browse the world
wide web and displays the content of the web pages.
A set of Bits that represent a single character. There are 8 Bits in a Byte.
A cable modem a device that is used for connecting to the Internet using the cable TV infrastructure.
Also known as degital certificate or SSL certificate.
This is a Digital ID used for SSL transactions.
A company that issue digital certificates. Verisign is the biggest certificate authority.
Common Gateway Interface. A standard for interfacing web servers with an executable
application or CGI is an interface to the web server from a particular program.
Most common name of a directory on the server where the executable CGI scripts reside.
The 'bin' part of 'cgi-bin' is a shorthand version of
Channel Definition Format
A way of defining the server-push channels for accessing frequently changing web content.
A computer program that is used to contact and obtain data from a another computer program known as server on same computer or on another computer.
A network architecture where a system is divided into two parts: the client and the server.
A Centers that offer the ability for people to place their web servers
on a secure location. This center also provides high-speed Internet connection, security, environment, backup power, and technical support.
Cold Fusion is a server-side scripting language. Cold
Fusion is mostly used for database interfacing.
A control panel is software installed on your web
server that allows you to control various web hosting
feature. With the help of control panel you can add
and remove email account, manage mailing list, setup
FTP account, change password, control SQL Database,
edit and modify you web pages and upload your web
pages. There are many different types of control
panels available for each major OS.
A Small piece of information in the form of text file that is stored in the hard drive of your computer.
It is used to customize user's browsing experience.
Central Processing Unit. The heart of the computer.
A crawler is a program that visits Web sites and reads their pages and other information in order to create entries for a search engine index. The major search engines on the Web all have such a program, which is also known as a "spider" or a "bot."
The ISDN signaling channel. Runs at 16 or 64 Kbps.
Data Transfer is the amount of data that can travel
through a communication circuit in one second. The
bandwidth of a network is limited to the bandwidth of
connection type (coaxial cable, fiber-optic cable or
telephone line etc) in that network.
A dedicated server is a server that has only one
owner. As an owner of the dedicated server, you have
full control of every aspect of the hardware and
software. Dedicated server gives you better
performance as compare to shared server because it
host only your sites.
Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) allows IP addresses to be allocated to hosts on an as-needed basis. The conventional scheme of allocating a permanent fixed IP address to every host is wasteful of addresses in situations where only a relatively small number of hosts are active at any given time. DHCP lets a host 'borrow' an IP address from a pool of IP addresses; when the address is no longer needed it is recycled and made available for use by some other host.
Dialup access is a way of connecting a computer to the Internet using a modem and the telephone line.
Domain Name System/Server.
This program, which coordinates the IP address and domain name for all computer attached to it. The host computer that runs this software is called a domain name server.
A domain name is a unique name associated with
specific IP address by a program that runs on an
internet host computer.
Digital Subscriber Line. A faster way of connecting a computer to the Internet using the telephone line.
Buying and selling the goods and services via the
Sending message from one computer to another over internet.
One of the most popular Internet services.
Encryption means encoding data using a cryptographic cipher. Encrypted data can be
decrypted only by an authorized entity.
Ethernet is the IEEE 802.3 series standard, based on the
CSMA/CD access method that provides two or more stations to share a
common cabling system. This access method, Carrier Sense Multiple
Access with Collision Detection, is the basis for Ethernet systems
which range from speeds of 1 Mb/s through 1000 Mb/s.
The design goals for Ethernet were to create a simply defined topology that made efficient use of shared resources, was easy to
reconfigure and maintain, provided compatibility across many
manufacturers and systems, while keeping the cost low.
Frequently Asked Question. Lists of frequently asked questions and answers
on a particular topic or theme. FAQ is good and
efficient way of sharing the knowledge on the web.
Fast Ethernet is the implementation of Ethernet standard that operates at the speed of 100Mbps.
Fiber Distributed Data Interface. It is a 100 Mbps Local Area Network, defined by ANSI and OSI standards. It was originally designed to operate over fiber optic cabling, but now also includes standard copper media for interconnection. FDDI uses a token ring media access control protocol.
Fiber Optic Cable
A cable used for transmitting data as a light wave.
Fiber optic cable does not use an electrical signal
at all. Fiber optic cable transmit information by
pulsing beam of light through very thin strands of
glass. It transmit signals much faster then coaxial
An filename extension is the part of a filename after the (last) period. It usually tells
operating systems what type of file it is. (eg
glossary.html or index.php)
A Unix based internet software tool for locating people on other Internet sites. Finger is also sometimes used to give access to non-personal information, but the most common use is to see if a person has an account at a particular Internet site..
A firewall is a system or group of systems that enforces an access control
policy between two networks. Probably the most important thing
to recognize about a firewall is that it implements an access control
Floating Point Unit. A part of the computer responsible for high precision
Frame relay is a high-speed communications technology that is used in hundreds of networks throughout the world to connect LAN, SNA, Internet and even voice applications.
Microsoft's server-side site creation and management software tool.
FrontPage extensions are also available for Unix-based operating systems.
FTP (File Transfer Protocol) allows a
person to transfer files between two computers,
generally connected via the Internet. If your system
has FTP and is connected to the Internet, you can
access very large amounts of files available on a
great number of computer systems. If you are on
Bitnet or a UUCP host, you should look for servers
that work through electronic mail (e-mail). A good
source of information on archives in general, is the
Usenet newsgroup comp.archives. When using FTP, you
use a program, called a 'client' to connect to a
machine that holds the files, a 'server'.
A network device used to translate between two different protocols. Used to interconnect two networks that use incompatible protocols.
1024 Megabytes is equal to 1 Gigabite.
Graphical Interchange Format. A file format for
graphics images that is widely used on the Internet
for storing images that have only a few distinct
colors, such as line drawing, cartoons, and simple
A widely successful method of making menus of material available over the Internet. Gopher is a Client and Server style program, which requires that the user have a Gopher Client program.
Graphical User Interface
Graphical User Interface (GUI) is a way of presenting
program output to users that uses pictures, icons,
and other graphical elements instead of just
Graphical User Interface
Graphical User Interface (GUI) is a way of presenting
program output to users that uses pictures, icons,
and other graphical elements instead of just
In the WWW world "hit" is used to describe a single request made by a web browser.
The main page that all of the pages on a particular
Web site are organized around and to which they link
back. Home page is also known as start page or
welcome page of a web site.
A networked computer dedicated to providing a certain
type of service. Web Host or Web Server usually stores the website files.
Hyper Text Markup Language is the coding language used to create Hypertext documents for use on the World Wide Web.
Hypertext Transfer Protocol. The main protocol used to transfer and receive data over the World Wide Web.
Requires a HTTP client program on one end, and an HTTP server program on the other end.
A hub is a network device that is used for connecting computers on a Local Are Network.
A connection between two HTML pages. Also known as
link or Hypertext link.
A page-linking system described by Ted Nelson in the
1960's in which text on one page links to text on
Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) defines a small number of messages used for diagnostic and management purposes. ICMP depends on IP to move packets around the network on its behalf.
Interactive Mail Access Protocol (IMAP) allows clients to manipulate email messages and mailboxes that reside on some server machine.
The Internet is a large collection of
computers all over the world that are connected to
one another in various ways. Using internet one can
communicate with other people through the world via
email, online news, magazines, newsgroups etc.
Internet backbone is the physical network (usually
relying on fiber optic cable) that carries Internet
traffic between different networks and is measured in
megabits per second.
The Internet Group Management Protocol (IGMP) is an Internet protocol that provides a way for an Internet computer to report its multicast group membership to adjacent routers.
A part of an organization's network that is private. Only authorized individuals have access to the intranet.
Internet Protocol (IP) is the central, unifying protocol in the TCP/IP suite. It provides the basic delivery mechanism for packets of data sent between all systems on an internet, regardless of whether the systems are in the same room or on opposite sides of the world.
Internet Protocol Address is a unique number identifying all devices connected to the Internet. This number is usually shown in groups of numbers from 0 to 255, separated by periods, for example
Internet Packet Exchange is a Novell network protocol.
IRC stands for "Internet Relay Chat". IRC is a multi-user chat system, where people meet on "channels" (rooms, virtual places, usually with a certain topic of conversation) to talk in groups, or privately. There is no restriction to the number of people that can participate in a given discussion, or the number of channels that can be formed on IRC.
ISDN stands for "Integrated Services Digital Networks", and it's a
ITU-T (formerly CCITT) term for a relatively new telecommunications
service package. ISDN is basically the telephone network turned
all-digital end to end, using existing switches and wiring (for the
most part) upgraded so that the basic "call" is a 64 kbps end-to-end
channel, with bit-diddling as needed.
Internet Service Provider. A company that provides
its subscribers with Internet access, usually for money.
A popular compression format. Also a name of a compression utility.
Java is a network-oriented programming language invented by Sun Microsystems that is specifically designed for writing programs that can be safely downloaded to your computer through the Internet and immediately run without fear of viruses or other harm to your computer or files. Using small Java programs, Web pages can include functions such as animations, calculators, and other fancy tricks.
Java class files
The file or set of files that contain the code for a Java applet.
Java Virtual Machine (JVM) is a set of programs that allow for Java applets to be run on a particular computer system.
Java Database Connectivity - a mechanism allowing Java applets to access different databases.
Kilobits per second. 1Kbps = 1024bps.
Local Area Network. A computer network that spans a relatively small area. Most LANs are confined to a single building or group of buildings. However, one LAN can be connected to other LANs over any distance via telephone lines and radio waves.
A permanent telephone connection between two points set up by a
telecommunications common carrier. Typically, leased lines are used by businesses to connect geographically distant offices. Unlike normal dial-up connections, a leased line is always active.
An alias for an individual that is used for identification and authentication when accessing a computer system.
Media Access Control. A network protocol used to control the access to the network by different devices.
A Mailing List is a list of email address for
a group of people who share a common interest in a
subject or topic. When you post your message to
mailing list, the list server automatically forwards
your message to everybody on the mailing list.
Mailing list is a very popular way of sending /
sharing information with a group of people.
The Internet host that is used to send, receive and forward email messages.
1MB = 1024 KiloBytes = 1,048,576 bytes
MOdulator-DEModulator. A device that connects a
computer's digital signal to an analog signal
(modulation) so it can travel through a telephone
line and also converts analog signals arriving
through a telephone line to digital signal that the
computer can use (demodulation).
A message that is sent to a specific group of hosts.
A popular open-source relational database.
A group of electronic devices connected together that are able to communicate with each other.
The name for discussion groups on USENET.
Network Interface Center - Any office that handles information for a network. The most famous of these on the Internet is Network Solutions, which is where new domain names are registered.
Network Interface Card which plugs into a computer and adapts the network interface to the appropriate standard.
Network News Transfer Protocol (NNTP) is used to propagate netnews postings (including Usenet postings) between systems.
Open Database Connectivity (ODBC) is a standard allowing applications to access different databases in an uniform way.
The state of the computer when it is not connected to the network.
The state of a computer when it is connected to the network and communicate with other machines.
The operating system defines our computing experience. It's the first software we see when we turn on the computer, and the last software we see when the computer is turned off. It's the software that enables all the programs we use. The operating system organizes and controls the hardware on our desks and in our hands, yet most users can't say with any certainty precisely what it is that the operating system does.
The Open System Interconnection (OSI) protocol suite is comprised of numerous standard protocols that are based on the OSI reference model.
This enables machines of different vendors to communicate over the network.
Password Authentication Protocol (PAP) is an authentication protocol that requires users to enter a password before accessing a secure system. The user's name and password are sent over the wire to a server, where they are compared with a database of user account names and passwords.
A network where there is no dedicated server. Every computer can share files and peripherals with all other computers on the network, given that all are granted access privileges. Such a network is practical only for small workgroups of less than a dozen computers.
Perl is a general-purpose programming language originally developed for text manipulation and now used for a wide range of tasks including system administration, web development, network programming, GUI development, and more.
PHP is a open-source server-side widely-used general-purpose scripting language that is especially suited for Web development and can be embedded into HTML.
PKZIP (or ZIP)
Popular compression and decompression programs.
An add-on piece of software that can extend the features of an existing application.
Post Office Protocol (POP) allows clients to read and remove email from a mailbox that resides on some server machine. The current version of POP is Version 3, usually referred to as POP3. POP provides no way of sending email; client programs that use POP to read mail usually use SMTP to send messages. POP is simpler and less powerful than the other widely-used mail-reading protocol IMAP.
A socket on the computer or other network device used to connect it to the network.
Point to Point Protocol (PPP) is the Internet Standard for transmission of IP packets over serial lines. PPP supports async and sync lines.
A set of rules by following which two parties can communicate. The TCP/IP protocol suite is
a famous Internet protocol suite.
Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN) is the regular old-fashioned telephone system.
Python is an interpreted, interactive, object-oriented programming language. It is often compared to Tcl, Perl, Scheme or Java.
Resellers are usually smaller companies that still try to build their customers base. They don't own the server with user accounts but can perform most administrative functions.
A computer on a packet-switching network that access
packet from other networks and determines the best
way to move each packet forward to its destination.
A programming language in which programs are the series of commands that are interpreted and then executed one by one.
A web search engine is a special kind of web page
that finds other web pages that matches a word or
phrase you enter into it. The word or phrase you
enter, called a search expression.
A networked computer that handles client requests.
All the data exchange between two network computer or
devices, starting when the connection is established and ending when connection terminates.
Initial fee charged by a host to set up and configure
your hosting account. You can search our database of
hosting companies for minimum or no setup fee.
This protocol was developed by Enterprise Integration Technologies to keep your moolah safe on its way from your wallet to a commercial transaction on the Internet.
A few lines of text that are automatically attached at the end of each email message by the email client.
SLIP is an acronym for Serial Line Internet Protocol, it is the serial line (modem) version of IP (Internet
Protocol), i.e. a protocol used to run IP over serial lines, such as telephone
Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) is used to deliver email from one system to another.
A normal paper mail delivered by the Post Office.
Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) provides a means of monitoring and managing systems over a network. SNMP defines a method of sending queries (the GET and GET-NEXT primitives) and commands (the SET primitive) from a management station client to an agent server running on the target system, and collecting responses and unsolicited event notifications.
Spam is flooding the Internet with many copies of the same message, in an attempt to force the message on people who would not otherwise choose to receive it.
An automated software that retrieves webpages and follows the hyperlinks contained in them. Used to generate indexes used by search engines.
Sequenced Packet Exchange is a Novell network protocol used in conjunction with IPX.
Structured Query Language (SQL) is a programming language for sending queries to databases. Most industrial-strength and many smaller database applications can be addressed using SQL. Each specific application will have its own version of SQL implementing features unique to that application, but all SQL-capable databases support a common subset of SQL.
SSH (Secure Shell) is a program to log into another
computer over a network, to execute commands in a
remote machine, and to move files from one machine to
another. It provides strong authentication and secure
communications over unsecure channels. It is intended
as a replacement for rlogin, rsh, and rcp.
Server-side includes (SSIs) are simple, HTML-embedded
directives that instruct the web server to include
data in the HTML document. SSI is an alternative to
CGI, server-side includes can be handy to do same
thing on number of pages of your web site. Suppose
you web site has 100 page and each page has same
footer information, instead of writing this
information in all 100 pages you can store that
information at 1 place and use SSI in all HTML
Secure Sockets Layer is a method of ensuring that
information submitted through a web site is secure
and cannot be accessed by unauthorized users or
hackers. When a site offers an SSL-secured form, the
information submitted via that is encrypted using a
special "certificate key" (also known as
SSL certificate) and then decrypted with another key
after it has been transmitted. SSL form typically
used for financial information like credit card or
personal information like social security number etc.
Static IP means a unique and unchanging IP
address for your site.
Playing multimedia files without a full download. Most popular streaming media formats are Real Audio/Video.
A sub domain is basically a subdirectory or folder
created under the primary Domain account, which is a
fully operational as primary domain. Sub domains can
be created on a domain name server and they don't
need to be registered with a domain registrar, but
the original domain would need to be registered
before a sub domain could be created. Normally sub
domain does not have www in their domain address.
Using world wide web is often referred to as surfing
or browsing the web.
A switch is an intelligent network device that forwards packets.
Tool command language. Simple scripting language and library often used for GUI, string-manipulation, testing, and integration of multiple components.
Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) provides a reliable byte-stream transfer service between two endpoints on an internet. TCP depends on IP to move packets around the network on its behalf.
Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol. TCP/IP is a name given to the collection (or suite) of networking protocols that have been used to construct the global Internet.
Telnet is a text-only protocol that connecting to a
remote computer over the Internet that let you use
programs and data just as if you were using the
computer locally. Couple of year’s back this was
one of the most common ways to connect to other
sites. Now with the growth of the web, it is rarely
Data packets being transmitted over a network.
A pair of wires twisted one around the other. Very common in the networking applications.
User Datagram Protocol (UDP) provides an unreliable packetized data transfer service between endpoints on an internet. UDP depends on IP to move packets around the network on its behalf.
A 16 bit ISO 10646 character set. Unicode is a specification for dealing with international text. Unicode is also the company that made this specification, so the name could mean two things. Unicode has a large "character set", that contains all the letters of the planet! This is the main advantage of Unicode. Unicode also has encodings specified to encode a string in special ways that save space for such a large character set.
A family of multi-user operating systems, first developed by AT&T Bell Laboratories in the 1970s and then licensed to many universities.
Uninterruptible Power Supply. UPS keeps web server
and other supporting network devices running on a battery for several minutes
to hours after a power outage.
Uniform Resource Locator is the four part addressing
scheme for an HTML document that tells Web browser
software which transfer protocol to use when
transporting the documents, the domain name of
computer on which the document resides, and the
A network that allows anyone who connected to the
network to read and post articles on verity of
One of the earlier encoding program used to transfer binary
data into ASCII data so that data can be transmitted
with the email message.
The Microsoft® Visual Basic® programming language, is a fast, portable, lightweight interpreter for use in World Wide Web browsers and other applications that use Microsoft® ActiveX® Controls, Automation servers, and Java applets.
A virus is a malicious program written to do as much harm as possible. Viruses can spread themselves over the network.
Virtual Private Network is a method of accessing the private network
(office or collage network) in a secure way over public communication lines
(eg from home) and networks.
The World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) is a forum for information, commerce, communication, and collective understanding. W3C develops interoperable technologies (specifications, guidelines, software, and tools) to lead the Web to its full potential.
An Internet service allowing to obtain the information about the domain name owner.
Wide Area Network
Wide area network (or WAN) is a set of computers that are to far apart to constitute a LAN. In fact, WANs are very often composed of a number of Local Area Networks interconnected together.
The part of internet is known as World Wild Web (or WWW or web). WWW is a subset of computer on internet that are connected to each other in a specific way that make those computers and their contents (HTML Pages etc) accessible to all computers in that subset.
XML is the Extensible Markup Language. It is designed to improve the functionality of the Web by providing more flexible and adaptable information identification.
A program that can XML documents and access their content.
This is a protocol for transferring files during direct dial-up communications. Developed by Ward Christensen in 1977, Xmodem has basic error checking to ensure that information isn't lost or corrupted during transfer; it sends data in 128-byte blocks.
This is a protocol for transferring files during direct dial-up communications. So named because it builds on the earlier Xmodem protocol, Ymodem sends data in 1,024-byte blocks and is consequently faster than Xmodem. However, it doesn't work well on noisy phone lines, unlike its successor, Zmodem.
A popular compression utility.
This file transfer protocol should be your first choice for sending and receiving files using dial-up connections. It can resume a file transfer after a break in communications.